A schema is a static declaration of all your configuration settings. It contains metadata about each setting so that the configuration can later be validated.
- Each schema is a Python class that subclasses Schema.
- Each attribute of the schema represents either a configuration section (see Section) or option (see Option).
This example schema defines the configuration for a database connection:
from configglue import schema class DatabaseConnection(schema.Schema): host = schema.StringOption( default='localhost', help='Host where the database engine is listening on') port = schema.IntOption( default=5432, help='Port where the database engine is listening on') dbname = schema.StringOption( fatal=True, help='Name of the database to connect to') user = schema.StringOption( help='Username to use for the connection') password = schema.StringOption( help='Password to use fot the connection')
host, port, dbname, user and password are options of the schema. Each option is specified as a class attribute.
The most important part of a schema is the list of configuration options it defines. Options are specified by class attributes.
class OvenSettings(schema.Schema): temperature = schema.IntOption() time = schema.IntOption()
Each option in your schema should be an instance of the appropriate Option class.
configglue ships with a couple of built-in option types; you can find the complete list in the schema option reference. You can easily write your own options if configglue’s built-in ones don’t do the trick; see Writing custom option types.
Each option takes a certain set of option-specific arguments (documented in the schema option reference). For example, ListOption (and its subclasses) require a item argument which specifies the type of the items contained in the list.
There’s also a set of common arguments available to all option types. All are optional. They’re fully explained in the reference, but here’s a quick summary of the most often-used ones:
- The default value for this option, if none is provided in the config file. Default is configglue.schema.NO_DEFAULT.
- If True, SchemaConfigParser.parse_all() will raise an exception if no value is provided in the configuration file for this option. Otherwise, self.default will be used. Default is False.
- The help text describing this option. This text will be used as the optparse.OptParser help text. Default is ''.
Again, these are just short descriptions of the most common option attributes. Full details can be found in the common schema option attribute reference.
Option name restrictions¶
configglue places only one restriction on schema option names:
A option name cannot be a Python reserved word, because that would result in a Python syntax error. For example:class Example(schema.Schema): pass = schema.IntOption() # 'pass' is a reserved word!
Schema inheritance in configglue works almost identically to the way normal class inheritance works in Python.
Section name “hiding”¶
In normal Python class inheritance, it is permissible for a child class to override any attribute from the parent class.
In order to allow easy extending of schemas, configglue overloads the standard Python inheritance model. Whenever a schema is created, it will inherit all its attributes from the base classes.
This poses a slight problem for attributes of type Section. Usually, you’ll want to extend a Section instead of overriding it. In order to achieve this, in your schema subclass, copy the parent’s attribute explicitely, to avoid modifying the parent schema class. Option attributes (derived from Option) will be overridden, as expected.
from configglue import schema class BaseSchema(schema.Schema): option1 = schema.IntOption() class MySection(schema.Section): option1 = schema.BoolOption() class ChildSchema(BaseSchema): option2 = schema.IntOption() class MySection(BaseSchema.MySection): option2 = schema.IntOption()
In this example ChildSchema will have two top-level options, option1 and option2, and one section MySection, which will have also two options within in (MySection.option1 and MySection.option2). So, defining ChildSchema in this way produces the same result as explicitely describing each attribute, as expected:
from configglue import schema class ChildSchema(schema.Schema): option1 = schema.IntOption() option2 = schema.IntOption() class MySection(schema.Section): option1 = schema.BoolOption() option2 = schema.IntOption()
Just as with Python’s subclassing, it’s possible for a configglue schema to inherit from multiple parent schemas. Keep in mind that normal Python name resolution rules apply.
Generally, you won’t need to inherit from multiple parents. The main use-case where this is useful is for “mix-in” classes: adding a particular extra option to every class that inherits the mix-in. Try to keep your inheritance hierarchies as simple and straightforward as possible so that you won’t have to struggle to work out where a particular piece of information is coming from.